To know what an ovarian cyst is the first thing you need to know that what ovaries are and what cysts are so the ovary is an organ of the female reproductive system. There are two ovaries are present on both sides of the uterus. Generally, the ovaries are two in numbers.
Cysts are abnormal sac-like structures usually filled with a liquid, semisolid, or gaseous material. These structures are usually benign (non-cancerous).
Almost every female develops ovarian cysts in her lifetime, most of the ovarian cysts are harmless and do not cause any pain or very little pain may be caused and resolve on their own or less medication may be needed. Few ovarian cysts may cause discomfort and pain and need to be removed.
There are different kinds of ovarian cyst such as hemorrhagic cysts, endometriotic cysts. However, functional cysts are the most common type of ovarian cysts. There are two kinds of functional cysts which include:
– Follicle cyst: A cyst that develops when a dominant follicle doesn’t release an egg for ovulation and form a cyst instead. Follicle cysts are also known as a simple ovarian cyst.
– Corpus luteum cyst: The follicle sacs generally dissolve after the ovulation, but when the sac doesn’t dissolve and the follicle boundaries release fluid inside the sac this causes a corpus luteum cyst.
There are some other types of ovarian cysts which include:
– Dermoid cyst: These cysts can contain tissues such as skin, hair, or teeth because they are developed from embryonic cells. Usually, they are non-cancerous.
– Hemorrhagic cyst: A hemorrhagic cyst is a result of bleeding into a follicular or corpus luteum cyst. These cysts are usually causing pain and triggering. Medications are helpful.
– Cystadenomas: The growth that develops on the outer surface of the ovary.
– Endometriotic cyst: These are the tissues that usually grow inside the uterus and develop outside the uterus and attach to the ovary results in a cyst formation.
It is a condition in which instead of producing one egg ovary starts developing a large number of eggs. This condition may lead to delaying periods and delayed conception.
The symptoms of ovarian cysts may include:
– Abdominal bloating
– Lower abdominal pain
– Pelvic cramps before or during periods
– Vaginal bleed
To diagnose an ovarian cyst an ultrasound lower abdomen or trans vaginal scan (TVS) should be performed. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to capture the images of internal structures. An ultrasound can also help to detects the size, location, and composition of the cyst such as (solid or fluid-filled).
Medications can help in resolving the cysts and prevent the development of new cysts. In few cases, the cysts need to be removed by the procedure of laparoscopy and laparotomy.
Laparoscopy– This procedure includes the surgical removal of a cyst. A small incision near your navel is made and then a small instrument is inserted into your abdomen to remove the cyst.
Laparotomy– This procedure is performed in case of large cysts. A large incision is made into the abdomen.