Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder frequent amongst women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS could have rare or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop quite a few small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to release eggs regularly.
The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment together with weight loss could reduce the chance of long-term problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
PCOS is an issue with hormones that impacts women throughout their childbearing years (ages 15 to 44). Between 2.2 and 26.7 % of women in this age group have PCOS (1, 2Trusted Source).
Many women have PCOS however don’t realize it. In a single research, as much as 70 % of ladies with PCOS hadn’t been diagnosed (2Trusted Source).
PCOS impacts a woman’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone — hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle. The ovaries also produce some amount of male hormones known as androgens.
The ovaries release eggs that fertilized by a man’s sperm. The discharge of an egg every month is known as ovulation.
The role of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) is to control ovulation. FSH stimulates the ovary to produce a follicle — a sac that accommodates an egg — after which LH triggers the ovary to release a mature egg.
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of signs that impacts the ovaries and ovulation. Its three most important features are:
In PCOS, many small, fluid-filled sacs produce inside the ovaries. The phrase “polycystic” means “many cysts.”
These sacs are literally follicles, each one containing an immature egg. The eggs never mature sufficient to trigger ovulation.
The lack of ovulation alters ranges of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. Estrogen and progesterone levels are decreases than normal, whereas androgen levels are higher than normal.
Additional male hormones disrupt the menstrual cycle, so women with PCOS get fewer periods than regular.
PCOS isn’t a new situation. Italian doctor Antonio Vallisneri first described its symptoms in 1721 (3Trusted Source).
The exact cause of PCOS is not recognized. Factors which may play a role include:
Signs and symptoms of PCOS usually develop across the time of the first menstrual interval during puberty. Typically, PCOS develops later, for example, in response to substantial weight gain.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS differ. A diagnosis of PCOS is made while you experience at the very least two of these signs:
PCOS signs and symptoms are usually extra severe when you’re overweight.
Complications of PCOS may include:
Obesity is related to PCOS and might worsen problems of the disorder.
There is no test to definitively diagnose PCOS. Your physician is likely, to begin with, a discussion of your medical history, together with your menstrual periods and weight changes. A physical examination will include checking for signs of extra hair growth, insulin resistance, and acne.
Your physician may then recommend:
If in case you have a diagnosis of PCOS, your physician may recommend further tests for complications. These tests can include:
PCOS treatment focuses on managing your individual considerations, resembling infertility, hirsutism, acne or obesity. The specific treatment may contain lifestyle changes or medicine.
Lifestyle changes with PCOS
Your physician might recommend weight reduction via a low-calorie weight-reduction plan combined with average exercise actions. Even a modest reduction in your weight — for example, dropping 5 % of your body weight — would possibly enhance your condition. Reducing weight can also improve the effectiveness of medicines your physician recommends for PCOS and will help with infertility.
To regulate your menstrual cycle, your physician would possibly recommend:
To help you ovulate, your physician would possibly recommend:
To reduce extreme hair growth, your physician would possibly recommend: