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Reproductive System

Reproductive system

The Reproductive system is that system which is related with the production of offspring to continue the race by the male and female the reproductive system is of two type’s male and female reproductive system.

Male reproductive system:

The male reproductive system contains the following parts.

  1. Testis
  2. Epididymis
  3. Vas deferens
  4. Seminal vesicle
  5. Ejaculatory duct
  6. Prostate gland
  7. Bulbourethral glands
  8. Penis

Testis: There are present the two testes in a pouch like structure outside the abdominal region which is called as scrotum. The testis is the primary sex organ present in the male reproductive system. Rest all the structures are called as secondary sex organs. The testis performs the two important functions:

Testis
  1. It produces sex cell that is sperms.
  2. They secrete the male sex hormone testosterone
  3. The size of this testis is about 4cm in length, 5cm in width and 2.5cm in thickness.
  4. The weight of testis is about 10-15gm.
  5. This is surrounded by the connective tissue layer. The testis remain outside the abdomen which keep the testis at a cooler temperature for the normally function.
  6. The internal structure of the testis contains the number of seminiferous tubules.
  7. The wall of these tubules manufacture the male sex cells sperm and filled the lumen of the tubules, around these tubules there are present the connective tissue which contain the special leydig cells which secretes the male sex hormones testosterone directly in the blood.
  8. The testosterone is responsible for the primary and secondary characteristic of male.
Male reproductive system
Male reproductive system

Male reproductive system image

Seminal vesicle: The Vas deference from each side unites with the seminal vesicle which is the structure for the storage of the sperm till the ejaculation. The seminal vesicles are present in relations to the urinary bladder. The length is about 5cm and the width is about 2-3 cm. The seminal vesicle contains seminal fluid which gives the nutrition to the sperms. The ducts of the seminal vesicle and vas deference unite to form the ejaculatory ducts.

Ejaculatory ducts: Each ejaculatory duct is 2cm in length and is lined by the columnar epithelium tissue. The vas deference collects the sperms and passes over the urinary bladder and passes through the prostate gland which is present just below the urinary bladder.

Prostate gland: The prostate gland is an important gland in the male reproductive system. The secretion of the gland increases the volume with the seminal fluid and gives nutrition to the sperm. The prostate gland is present in the lower pelvic region. It is about 4cm in size transversely at the base 3cm vertically and 2cms anteriorly posteriorly. The weight of the prostate gland is about 8gm the size is about walnut.

The prostate gland has the following parts.

  1. Apex- It faces downwards
  2. Base- It faces upwards

It has 4 surfaces

  1. Anterior
  2. Posterior
  3. Two infrolateral

Lobes: It has five lobes anterior, posterior and two laterals and the one median. It secrets the milky thin and alkaline fluid which contains the citric acid, bicarbonate ions & lipids.

Nerve supply to prostate gland:

  1. Sympathetic- Preganglionic fibers are derived from L1 L2 superior hypogastria plexus.
  2. Parasympathetic: The fibers are derived from S2 S3 S4

Bulbourethral glands: There are present two bulbourethral glands just below the prostate gland. The size of this gland is about the pea seeds. The most important function of these glands is to secrete the alkaline secretion, which protect the sperms against the vaginal acidity acid also increases the volume in the sperms.

Draw the diagram of human sperm and label its part toppr.com

Structure of the sperms:

The sperm is the male sex cell. It is produced by the testis and it contain the four important parts:

  1. Head
  2. Neck
  3. Middle part (body)
  4. Tail

The head is oval in shape it contain the nucleus covered by the plasma membrane. It contains the cytoplasm. The neck is very small and constricted. It is present between the head and middle piece It has little cytoplasm. The tail is the longest part of the sperm which help in the movement of the sperm. The sperm contains the 23 chromosomes 22 are autosomal and one is the sex chromosome that is XY, the ‘Y’ is responsible for the male body.

The life period of sperm is few days. The sperms reach the fallopian tube in about 70 min/ejaculation. The movement of sperm is from 1.5 to 3mm/min. the sperm remain in the uterus from 24-28 hours.

Semen: The semen is the fluid mixture of sperms and the secretions of the prostate and bulbourethral gland. The secretion of these glands provide the proper medium for sperms like movement, nutrition etc. with pH valve approximately 7.5 PH (Slightly alkaline) each ejaculation contain 210-300 million sperms.

Spermatogenesis: Due to the secretion of hypothalamic hormones (gonadotropic hormones) the spermatogenesis starts. The increased level of gonadotropin hormones acts at the anterior pituitary gland and secrete two hormones.

LH- Luteinizing hormones

FSH- Follicle stimulating hormones

LH acts on the leydig cells and stimulates the secretion of androgens which stimulates the process of the spermatogenesis.

Penis: It is the male sex organ. It is the muscular organ use for mating. It contains the two types of the tissue. The inner layer is called as corpus spongiosum. The outer layer is called corpus covernosa. The inner layer of tissues is present around the urethra it contain number of the blood vessels and the nerves when filled with the blood the erection takes place.

Nerve supply: Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves which is under the control of the brain.

Female reproductive system:

It contains the following organs.

  1. Ovary
  2. Fallopian tubes
  3. Uterus
  4. Cervix
  5. Vagina
  6. Mammary glands
Female reproductive system

Female reproductive anatomy - True

Ovary: The ovary is the primary sex organ present in the female reproductive system. The most important function of the ovary is the secretion of the female sex cell that is ovum and the secretion of the female sex hormone progesterone and estrogen. The ovaries are located one on each side of the abdomen. The length of the ovary is about 3cm and the width is about 2cm and thickness is about 1cm. The weight of the ovary is about 3gms. The shape of the ovary is spherical or almond shaped each ovary contains a number of the follicle cells out of which only one develops into the mature ovum.

The ovary produces the one ovum per month either by right or left ovary alternately. The formation of the ovum takes place under the effect of the female sex hormones progesterone and each ovary is attached by the ligament with the abdomen and this is very much closed to the open part of the fallopian tube so that when the ovum is released by the ovary it enters in the fallopian tube.

The ovary produces the ovum from the age of 13 to the age of 50 on the average.

ovary diagram anatomy (With images) | Ovaries, Ovarian follicle ...

Structure of ovary image

Fallopian tube: These are two in number which are the secondary sex organs the tubes are present one in each side of the abdomen the length of each fallopian tube is about 10-12cm.

One part is open and is present near the ovary this is called as the infundibulum. The other part of the tube is the closed part and joined with the uterus. The internal lining of the fallopian tube is made up of the ciliated epithelial cells. The cilia are the very fine hair or thread like structures which show the regular movement and these cilia help the movement of the ovum in the upward direction.

Uterus: The uterus is the most important part of female reproduction system. It is a muscular bag like structure. The uterus performs the most important function the growth of the baby during pregnancy. Length of uterus is about 8cm width is about 5cm and thickness is about 2cm. weight is approx. 50-80gm. This is highly elastic structure the uterus is present above and behind the urinary bladder.

The uterus is divided into two parts:

  1. Body
  2. Cervix

Body of uterus: This is the upper part of uterus. The top of the body is dome shaped.

Cervix: Lower part of uterus is called as cervix. The cervix contains the two openings.

  1. Internal OS of cervix
  2. External OS of cervix

Length of cervix 2.5cm

The uterus contains the three layer outer layer is perimetrium, middle layer is myometrium and inner layer is endometrium.

The endometrium goes under the cyclic charges. The cells are degenerated and regenerated. It contains number of the mucus glands and the blood capillaries.

Blood supply is by the uterine arteries and veins.

Cervix is composed of most powerful splinter muscle which can hold a baby of 7 kg.

Vagina: this is the next part of cervix

  • Muscular tube like structure
  • Length is about 8cm
  • Surrounded by labia minora
  • Outer covering labia majora

Top of the female urethra there is a small muscular structure called clitoris which is richly supplied by nerve ending and blood vessels.

  • It resembles to the penis of the males embryonically
  • Labia minora are a pair of thin cutaneous folds present on each side
  • Labia mojora resembles to the scrotum of the males. These are two in number and cover the entire structure. It consist of connective tissue, adipose tissue and smooth muscle fibers. The skin contains the sweat and sebaceous glands.

THE CELL THEORY – SPIRITUALITY AS CELLULAR FUNCTION | Science of ...

  • Ovum is the female sex cell
  • Produced by ovary
  • It is rounded/spherical structures
  • Non motile
  • Largest cell of the body
  • Size is about 300 microns
  • It contains the outer covering corona radiata contain plasma membrane
  • Its nucleus present in the center and it is surrounded by thick cytoplasm called ooplasm.
  • It has rich storage of food material which helps in the development of zygote.
  • The ovum contains 23 chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are XX.
  • The life period of ovum is 24-48 hours.

Oogenesis: Formation of ovum in ovaries.

  • Oogenesis takes place in griffin follicles cells in the ovaries.
  • Each primary oocyte (2N)divides by meiosis (1) into secondary oocyte (N)

Mammary gland:

Breast Anatomy

Mammary gland image

  • The mammary glands are called as the female breast.
  • At the puberty stage (teenage) under the effect of the female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen the development of the female breast starts and by the age of 15-16 the growth is complete.
  • The normal breast tissue contain the fatty glandular and fibrous connective tissue.
  • The breasts are present over the pectorals major muscle attached with the connective tissue.
  • The female breast contains a number of the lactiferous ducts. These are the milk producing ducts which produces the milk after the delivery, each lactiferous duct contains the main duct which contain number of the ductile.
  • At the end of the ductile there is presents the alveolus. This part produces the milk after the birth of the child under the effect of the oxytocin (OT) hormones which is produced by the posteriors pituitary gland.
  • The main duct opens in the next part lactiferous sinus which stores the milk temporary and opens by the pore in nipple region.
  • Similarly a number of the lactiferous ducts opens in the nipple area.
  • The slightly colored area around the nipple is called as the areola.

Functions of breast or mammary gland

  • Helps in lactation after the delivery.
  • Lactation is controlled by the these hormones
  1. Progesterone
  2. Estrogen
  3. Oxytocin

The Importance of lactation: The lactation is the process of feeding the baby by the mothers.

Lactation has the following importance:

  1. The mother’s milk is the complete diet for the baby.
  2. The mother’s milk contain the maximum protein, Ca++ and vitamins.
  3. The mother’s milk providing active immunity (defense) for the baby against the various infections.
  4. The lactation is the attachment between the mother and baby.
  5. Lactation also helps to space the next conception.

Menstruation cycle:

At the puberty stage around the age of 13/14 the formation of the ovum starts in the ovary and this ovum comes in the fallopian tube. If the fertilization by the sperm takes place the conception takes place (pregnancy).

If there is no conception of ovum it start coming to uterus the coming of unfertilized ovum and broken endometrial mucus and some of the blood comes out of the uterus which is called as menses.

The menses normally takes place from 3-5 days. The cycle is on the average of 28 or 29 days every month. The cycle repeated month after month is called as the menstruation cycle.

The mature ovum after releasing from the ovary enters in the fallopian tube and fixed at the upper part of the fallopian tube if any sperm units with the ovum the fertilization takes place and the conception under the effect of the female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. The formation of ovum stops and the menses stop.

If there is no fertilization in the last week of cycle the ovum starts coming in the lower part of the uterus and the contraction and relaxation of the wall of the uterus takes place. Due to this the cells of the internal layer of the endometrium break as a result of this some blood comes out. Secondly these are present the mucus secretion and the ovum comes out in the end of 4th week of the month coming out of unfertilized ovum along.

Ovulation: The ovulation starts after 5 days of the cycle. In the middle of cycle the mature ovum is ready to release i.e. about 14th day of the cycle 28/2=14 +/- 2 days i.e. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 day

This is the maximum conception period.

Safe period:

  • 1-5 days after the cycle
  • Last 5 days of the cycle

Abnormalities:

  1. Amenorrhea: Absence of menses
  2. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menses
  3. Menorrhagia: Access of bleeding menses
  4. Menorrhagia: Bleeding between the cycle

Clinical part:

Male reproductive system

  1. Prostatic hypertrophy: This is the condition of the prostatic enlargement in the males. It occurs in the clearly age, about in 2/3rd cases it occurs may be little or more. The treatment is surgical but in the modern technology such as microwaves or the drugs to shrink the prostate gland and inserting a small balloon to compress the prostatic tissue from the prostatic urethra and the flow of the urine normal.
  2. Vasectomy: This is the male sterilization for the permanent birth control, during the procedure the male vas defenses are closely tied so that the sperm cannot enter the female genital tract.
  3. Male infertility: The formations of sperms are effected by the drugs like tetracycline and access of alcohol. The male infertility can also be due to the deficiency of special type of calcium and hormonal imbalance.
  4. Premature ejaculation: This can be due to the following causes:-

1. Anxiety

2. Fear which can cause the erectile dis-function.

Biological causes:

  1. Abnormal hormonal levels
  2. Abnormal neurotransmitters (Nerve cells)
  3. Abnormal ejaculatory system
  4. Thyroid problems
  5. Prostrate infections
  6. Nerve damage from surgery of trauma

Treatment:

  1. Behavior technique
  2. Anti-depressant
  3. Analgesic
  4. Counseling

Clinical part of female reproductive system:

  1. Uterine prolapse: When the muscle and ligaments of pelvic floor stretch and weakness they cannot provide proper support to the uterus. As a result of this the uterus slips down and comes out of vagina can be in women of any age but normally in a menopausal women or the lady who has one or more deliveries.
  2. Ovarian Cyst: An ovarian cyst is the collection of fluid surrounded by a very thin wall within an ovary. The ovarian follicle larger than about 2cm is called as ovarian cyst. Such a cyst range from a pea’s seed to the size of the orange.
  3. Hysterectomy: This is the surgical removal of the uterus it may also involve the removal of cervix, ovaries and fallopian tubes etc.
  4. Tubectomy: In the tubectomy the fallopian tubes are tied up very tightly or operated by making a cut and tightly closed so that the released ovum cannot move in the upward direction of the fallopian tube as a result of this no fertilization takes place this is the method of sterilization of family planning.